This is the default header for all files in the database. Files which contain gaiji, however, have an additional CHARDECL section in the ENCODINGDESC below.
The project was conducted 2005-2008. Some minor revisions and additions were done in 2009.
All texts used with permission. Copyright for the Chinese text lies with the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (CBETA). Copyright for the Pāli text lies with the Vipassana Research Institute. Copyright for the Sanskrit text lies with Fumio Enomoto. Copyright for the English text lies with Marcus Bingenheimer. The Tibetan and Manchu texts are in the public realm. The digital edition itself is made available under the LGPL.
If Chinese, the text below is based on the Taishō text from the CBETA-Database
(Version Feb.2006). If Pāli, the text base is the VRI Chaṭṭa Saṅgāyana edition
(ver.3). If Sanskrit the text base is
This file has been created in the project "A Digital Comparative Edition of the Bieyi za ahan jing" conducted at the Chung-hwa Institute for Buddhist Studies 中華佛學研究所 and the Dharma Drum Buddhist College 法鼓佛教研修學院. The project was funded by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange 蔣經國國際學術交流基金會. The aim of the project was to produce a comparative digital edition and partial translation of the 364 sutras of the BZA and their parallels. In the original interface, the texts were kept in an eXist database and are realized via XQuery and XSLT as HTML for the online user. The project lasted from 2005-2009.
Changes from the respective text base are usually marked with a RESP="t.100" attribute on the containing elements
BZA: New Punctuation. Markup of person and place names. Verse and prose. References to the print edition (Taishō). Corrected characters (according to CBETA).
ZA: New Punctuation. Verse and prose. References to the print edition (Taishō). Markup of person and place names.
Other Chinese: Parallel and not-parallel divisions regarding the BZA marked. Verse and Prose.
Pāli, Sanskrit, Tibetan & others: Parallel and not-parallel divisions regarding the BZA. Verse and Prose. Markup of person and place names. Variant readings.
Translation of BZA 032. First version published in
Thus have i heard, once, the Buddha was staying near rājagaha on gijjhakūṭa85 Mountain. at that time the Buddha was extolling the teaching of Nirvāṇa for the monks.
King Māra thought: ‘The Buddha is staying near rājagaha extolling the teaching of Nirvāṇa for the monks. i should go and disturb them’. having thought this, he changed into one-hundred people, fifty of which were extremely beautiful and fifty extremely ugly. at that time the monks were all surprised and astonished. ‘What is happening now? Such beauty, and again, such ugliness?’.
The Buddha knew that Māra had come to disturb the gathering. at that time the Buddha addressed Māra: 'In the long night of [saṃsāric] birth and rebirth, you assume all these forms beautiful and ugly. How now do you attain deliverance from the shore of suffering? What is the use of all these shape-changings? If someone is attached to [the characteristics of] man or woman, you might [with benefit] change into these forms. I, however, do not [give significance to] the characteristics of a man or woman. What use is it changing into these shapes?'
When the Buddha had finished, the monks, having listened to what he had said, were happy and practised accordingly.