Fúshàn 福善 (1915-1947)
Fúshàn ordained at Hèlín Temple 鶴林寺 in Zhènjiāng 鎮江 when he was 15 or 16 years old. Around 1931, Ǎitíng 靄亭, abbot of the nearby Zhúlín Temple 竹林寺, established the Zhúlín Buddhist Seminary 竹林佛學院. The main teacher at the time was Zhènhuá 震華. Fúshàn enrolled after meeting Zhènhuá, who was impressed by the former's abilities.
In 1935, Fúshàn graduated and traveled to Nánpǔtuó Temple 南普陀寺 where he became acquainted with its abbot, Chángxǐng 常惺. That year, he enrolled in the Mǐnnán Buddhist Seminary 閩南佛學院 in order to continue his studies. While there he served as chief editor for the magazine Human Awakening 人間覺, which was being published at the Seminary. Fellow researchers at the time included Yǔtán 雨曇, Mǐnzhì 敏智, and Míngshān 茗山.
At the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Fúshàn met Tàixū 太虛 and fled with him to Chóngqìng 重慶 on August 25, 1937. Fúshàn then became became an assistant lecturer at the newly opened Sino-Tibetan Institute 漢藏教理院. During this period he also edited the periodical Hǎicháo yīn 海潮音 for five years as it moved around between Chéngdū 成都, Héngyáng 衡陽, Guìyáng 貴陽, and Chóngqìng, and then back to the capital at the end of the war.