Ideology Portal

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Questions of Buddhist ideology were at the center of Buddhist religiosity in modern China. We are currently working on 12 articles in this category.

Important Chinese Buddhist Scriptural Texts

Major Buddhist Schools of Thought and Practice

The Buddhist schools (zōng 宗) refer to traditions of thought, doctrine, text and practice. In the first half of the 20th century, a number of these schools were revived, while other schools continued to thrive. As with Chinese Buddhism in other periods, an individual's association with one of these "schools" most often represented a philosophical or practical affiliation, and did not usually imply an exclusive commitment to a particular creed or sect.

  • Chán 禪宗 (Chan or Zen)
  • Huáyán 華嚴宗 (Huayan or Avataṃsaka)
  • Mìjiào 密教 (Esoteric)
    • Dōngmì 東密 (Eastern/Japanese Esoteric Buddhism)
    • Xīmì 西密 (Western/Tibetan Esoteric Buddhism)
  • Jìngtǔ 淨土宗 (Pure Land)
  • 律宗 (Vinaya)
  • Tiāntái 天台宗
  • Wéishì 唯識 (Consciousness-Only)
    • Associated school of Hetuvidya 因明 (Buddhist logic)

Controversies, Debates, and Movements

  • Dànào Jīnshān 大鬧金山 (The Invasion of Jīnshān)
  • Dàshéng qǐxìn lùn zhēnwěi biàn 大乘起信論真偽辯 (The Debate over the authenticity of The Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith)
  • Miàochǎn xīngxué 廟產興學 (Build Education with Temple Property)
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