A Critical, Digital Edition of the Song gaoseng zhuan
The Song-Dynasty Collection of Biographies of Eminent Monks.

"A Critical, Digital Edition of the Song gaoseng zhuan 宋高僧傳" is a project undertaken by Marcus Bingenheimer, Jen-jou Hung, John Kieschnick and Boyong Zhang. It is funded by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange.

「宋高僧傳之校勘與數位化版本」專案計畫,是「蔣經國國際學術交流基金會」所贊助之國際合作研究計畫。由洪振洲、馬德偉(Marcus Bingenheimer)、柯嘉豪(John Kieschnick)與張伯雍共同執行。

This critical digital edition 本數位版本特色:

The Song gaoseng zhuan (SGSZ) consists of 531 major and 125 minor biographies and stands in a long tradition of Chinese biographical literature. Its author Zanning (919-1001) was one of the most influential clerics of his time at the court of the Northern Song.


The identification of person names, place names and dates is expressed in XML/TEI markup. In addition to identifying and disambiguating these entities, geo-referencing the places, and providing basic information on the people, another layer of markup was added to record semantically simple events that joins these data. We call this markup construct a ‘nexus-point’ because it represents information in the text which connects people, places, and time. Nexus-points in the SGSZ data set are defined in natural language in the form: An event, recorded in the text, by which two or more marked up entities (one or more person(s), a place, a date) are understood to be related. [Pseudo-schema: (person, person+),place?,time? | person, (place | time)?]. Meaning whereever two or more persons are reported to have met, possible with further information about place or time, or one person is said to have been at a certain place during his life time, we mark this event as a nexus point. The nexus point dataset allows for various vectors of analysis: geographic and temporal developments can be explored as well as social networks.[1]


The dataset of XML files on which interface and analysis is based, is made available under a CC (Attribution - Share Alike) Version 3 license.

所有介面及分析所用之XML檔案、資料集,均可以「創用CC 3.0姓名標示─相同方式分享」形式授權使用。

[1] First steps in this direction have been published as Marcus BINGENHEIMER, Jen-Jou HUNG, Simon WILES: "Social Network Visualization from TEI Data." Literary and Linguistic Computing 26(3), 2011. Doi: 10.1093/llc/fqr020.


Go to the Interface


Download SGSZ Dataset

Powered by TEI!